|CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE.
64th CONGRESS, 1st SESSION
VOLUME 53, PART 7
25 April 1916
I wish to put in the RECORD the secret treaty of Verona of November 22, 1822, showing what this ancient conflict is
between the rule of the few and the rule of the many. I wish to call the attention of the Senate to this treaty because it
is the threat of this treaty which was the basis of the Monroe doctrine. It throws a powerful white light upon the conflict
between monarchial government and government by the people. The Holy Alliance under the influence of Metternich,
the Premier of Austria, in 1822, issued this remarkable secret document :
[American Diplomatic Code, 1778 - 1884, vol. 2 ; Elliott, p. 179.]
SECRET TREATY OF VERONA
The undersigned, specially authorized to make some additions to the treaty of the Holy Alliance, after having
exchanged their respective credentials, have agreed as follows :
ARTICLE 1. The high contracting powers being convinced that the system of representative govern- ment is
egually as incompatible with the monarchial principles as the maxim of the sovereignty of the people with the
high devine right, engage mutually in the most solemn manner, to use all their efforts to put an end to the
system of representative governments, in whatever country it may exhist in Europe, and to prevent its being
introduced in those countries where it is not yet known.
ART. 2. As it can not be doubted that the liberty of the press is the most powerful means used by the
pretended supporters of the rights of nations to the detrement of those princes, the high contracting parties
promise reciprocally to adopt all proper measures to suppress it, not only in their own states but also in the
rest of Europe.
ART. 3. Convinced that the principles of religion contribute most powerfully to keep nations in the state of
passive obedience which they owe to their princes, the high contracting parties declare it to be their
intention to sustain in their respective States those measures which the clergy may adopt, with the aim of
ameliorating their own interests, so intimately connected with the preservation of the authority of the princes ;
and the contracting powers join in offering their thanks to the Pope for what he has already done for them,
and solicit his constant cooperation in their views of submitting the nations.
ART. 4. The situation of Spain and Portugal unite unhappily all the circumstances to which this treaty has
particular reference. The high contracting parties, in confiding to France the care of putting an end to
them, engaged to assist her in the manner which may the least compromit them with their own people and
the people of France by means of a subsidy on the part of the two empires of 20,000,000 of francs every
year from the date of the signature of this treaty to the end of the war.
ART. 5. In order to establish in the Peninsula the order of things which exhisted before the revolution of
Cadiz, and to insure the entire execution of the articles of the present treaty, the high contracting parties
give to each other the reciprocal assurance that as long as their views are not fulfilled, rejecting all other
ideas of utility or other measure to be taken, they will address themselves with the shortest possible delay to
all the authorities exhisting in their States and to all their agents in foreign countries, with the view to
establish connections tending toward the accomplishment of the objects proposed by this treaty.
ART. 6. This treaty shall be renewed with such changes as new circumstances may give occasion for, either
at a new congress or at the court of one of the contracting parties, as soon as the war with Spain shall be
ART. 7. The present treaty shall be ratified and the ratifications exchanged at Paris within the space of six
Made at Verona the 22d November, 1822.
For Austria :-----------------------------------------------------METTERNICH.
For France :------------------------------------------------CHATEAUBRIAND.
For Prussia :---------------------------------------------------------BERNSTET.
For Russia :------------------------------------------------------NESSELRODE.
I ask to have printed in the CONGRESSIONAL RECORD this secret treaty, because I think it ought to be called now to
the attention of the people of the United States and of the world. This evidence of the conflict between the rule of the
few verses popular government should be emphasized on the minds of the people of the United States, that the conflict
now waging throughout the world may be more clearly understood, for after all said the great pending war springs from
the weakness and frailty of government by the few, where human error is far more probable than the error of the many
where aggressive war is only permitted upon the authorizing vote of those whose lives are jeopardized in the trenches
of modern war.
Mr. SHAFROTH. Mr. President, I should like to have the senator state whether in that treaty there was not a coalition
formed between the powerful countries of Europe to reestablish the sovereignty of Spain in the Republics of South and
Mr. OWEN. I was just going to comment upon that, and I am going to take but a few moments to do so because I
realize the preasure of other matters. This Holy Alliance, having put a Bourbon prince upon the throne of France by
force, then used France to suppress the constitution of Spain immediately afterwards, and by this very treaty gave her a
subsidy of 20,000,000 francs annually to enable her to wage war upon the people of Spain and to prevent their exercise
of any measure of the right of self-government. The Holy Alliance immediately did the same thing in Italy, by sending
Austrian troops to Italy, where the people there attempted to exercise a like measure of liberal constitutional
self-government ; and it was not until the printing press, which the Holy Alliance so stoutly opposed, taught the people
of Europe the value of liberty that finally one country after another seized a greater and greater right of self
government, until now it may be fairly said that nearly all the nations of Europe have a very large measure of self
government. However, I wish to call the attention of the Senate and the country to this important history in the growth
of constitutional popular self-government. The Holy Alliance made its powers felt by the wholesale drastic
suppression of the press in Europe, by universal censorship, by killing free speech and all ideas of popular rights, and
by the complete suppression of popular government. The Holy Alliance having destroyed popular government in
Spain and in Italy, had well-laid plans also to destroy popular government in the American colonies which had revolted
from Spain and Portugal in Central and South America under the influence of the successful example of the United
States. It was because of this conspiracy against the American Republics by the Europian monarchies that the great
English statesman, Canning, called the attention of our government to it, and our statesmen then, including Thomas
Jefferson, took an active part to bring about the declaration by President Monroe in his next annual message to the
Congress of the United States that the United States should regard it as an act of hostility to the government of the
United States and an unfriendly act if this coalition or if any power of Europe ever undertook to establish upon the
American Continent any control of any American Republic or to acquire any territorial rights. This is the so-called
Monroe doctrine. The threat under the secret treaty of Verona to suppress popular governments in the American
Republics is the basis of the Monroe doctrine. This secret treaty sets forth clearly the conflict between monarchial
government and popular government and the government of the few as against the government of the many. It is a
part, in reality, of developing popular sovereignty when we demand for women equal rights to life, to liberty, to the
possession of property, to an equal voice in the making of the laws and the administration of the laws. This demand
on the part of the women is made by men, and it ought to be made by men as well as by thinking, progressive women,
as it will promote human liberty and human happiness. I sympathize with it, and I hope that all parties will in the
national conventions give their approval to this larger measure of liberty to the better half of the human race.
6. The experience we have had, has made us acquainted with the many advantages that have been taken by the
Society of its intervention in the marriages of the House of Austria, and of those which have been effected in other
kingdoms, France, Poland, and in various duchies. Forasmuch assembling, proposing with prudence, selecting choice
persons who may be friends and families of the relatives, and of the friends of the Society. 7. It will be easy to gain
the princesses, making use of their valets; by that coming to feed and nourish with relations of friendship, by being
located at the entrance in all parts, and thus become acquainted with the most intimate secrets of the familiars. Secret
Instructions of The Company of Jesus: Chapter II.